The Isra and Mi'raj (Arabic: الإسراء والمعراج, al-’Isrā’ wal-Mi‘rāj) are the two parts of a Night Journey that, according to Islam, Muhammad took during a single night around the year 621 CE. It has been described as both a physical and spiritual journey. A brief sketch of the story is in surahal-Isra of the Quran, and other details come from the hadith, which are collections of the reports, teachings, deeds and sayings of Muhammad. In the Isra’, Muhammad traveled on the steed Buraq to "the farthest mosque". Traditionally, later Muslims identified the mosque as a location in the physical world, the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. At the mosque, Muhammad led other prophets in prayer. He then ascended to the heavens in the Mi‘raj, speaking to God afterwards. The remembrance of this journey is one of the most significant events in the Islamic calendar.
The events of Isra and Mi'raj are referred to briefly in the Qur'an. For greater detail, they have been discussed in Hadith literature, reported sayings of the prophet which supplement the Qur'an. Of the hadith, two of the best known are by Anas ibn Malik, who would have been a young boy at the time of Muhammad's journey of Mi'raj. Ibn 'Abbas is another source that challenges the usual description of the Mi'raj. He was also a young boy at the time of the journey.
Within the Qur'an itself, surat al-Isra, the 17th chapter. In it, the first verse briefly describes the Isra. There is also some information in a later verse and another surah, an-Najm, which some scholars[who?] say is related to the Isra and Mi'raj.
Glory to Him Who carried His servant by night from the Sacred Masjid to the Furthest Masjid, whose precincts We have blessed, to show him of Our wonders! He it is Who is All-Hearing, All-Seeing![Quran 17:1 (Translated by Tarif Khalidi)]
Remember when We said to you that your Lord encompasses mankind in His knowledge. Nor did We make the vision We showed you except as a test to people, as also the accursed tree in the Qur'an.[Quran 17:60 (Translated by Tarif Khalidi)]
And he saw him a second time,
By the lote-tree of the Extremity
Near which is the Garden of Refuge
When there covered the lote-tree that which covered it.
The neither veered nor overreached.
He saw some of his Lord's greatest wonders.[Quran 53:13–18 (Translated by Tarif Khalidi)]
The place referred to in the Qur'an as "the Farthest Masjid" (Arabic: المسجدِ الأقصى, al-Masjidi 'l-’Aqṣá), from surat al-Isra, has been historically considered as referring to the site of the modern-day al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. The Jerusalem interpretation was advanced by the earliest biographer of Muhammad (ca. 570 - 632) – Ibn Ishaq (ca. 704 - 761/770) – and is supported by numerous ahadith. The building of the Masjid in Jerusalem was not present during Muhammad's lifetime, and the term used for mosque (masjid (Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد)) literally means "Place of prostration," and includes monotheistic places of worship, but does not lend itself exclusively to physical structures but a location, as Muhammad stated "The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying." Therefore, the phrase "Al-Masjidil-Aqsa" means that there was a place, but not necessarily a building, where Muhammad prostrated to God or worshiped Him, in the "Blessed Region." When the Rashid caliph ‘Umar conquered Jerusalem after Muhammad's death, a prayer house was rebuilt on the site. The structure was expanded by the Umayyad caliph ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and finished by his son al-Walid I in 705. The building was repeatedly destroyed by earthquakes and rebuilt, until the reconstruction in 1033 CE, by the Fatimid caliph ‘Ali az-Zahir, and that version of the structure is what can be seen in the present day.
Islamic scholars such Heribert Busse and Neal Robinson, believe that Jerusalem is the originally intended interpretation of the Qur’an. Muslims used to pray towards Jerusalem, but according to the following verses of their Quran, God changed this direction, the Qiblah, to instead direct to al-Masjid al-Haram:
And thus we have made you a just community that you will be witnesses over the people and the Messenger will be a witness over you. And We did not make the qiblah which you used to face except that We might make evident who would follow the Messenger from who would turn back on his heels. And indeed, it is difficult except for those whom Allah has guided. And never would Allah have caused you to lose your faith. Indeed Allah is, to the people, Kind and Merciful. We have certainly seen the turning of your face, [O Muhammad], toward the heaven, and We will surely turn you to a qiblah with which you will be pleased. So turn your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram. And wherever you [believers] are, turn your faces toward it [in prayer]. Indeed, those who have been given the Scripture well know that it is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.
— Quran, Chapter 2 (Al-Baqarah) verse 143-144
From various hadiths we learn much greater detail. The Isra’ is the part of the journey of Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem. It began when Muhammad was in the Great Mosque, and the Archangel Jibrīl (or Jibrāʾīl, Gabriel) came to him, and brought Buraq, the traditional heavenly steed of the prophets. Buraq carried Muhammad to al-Aqsa Mosque, the "Farthest Mosque", in Jerusalem. Muhammad alighted, tethered Buraq to the Temple Mount and performed prayer, where on God's command he was tested by Gabriel. It was told by Anas ibn Malik that Muhammad said: "Jibra'il brought me a vessel of wine, a vessel of water and a vessel of milk, and I chose the milk. Jibra'il said: 'You have chosen the Fitrah (natural instinct).'" In the second part of the journey, the Mi'raj (an Arabic word that literally means "ladder"), Jibra'il took him to the heavens, where he toured the seven stages of heaven, and spoke with the earlier prophets such as Abraham (ʾIbrāhīm), Moses (Musa), John the Baptist (Yaḥyā ibn Zakarīyā), and Jesus (Isa). Muhammad was then taken to Sidrat al-Muntaha – a holy tree in the seventh heaven that Gabriel was not allowed to pass. According to Islamic tradition, God instructed Muhammad that Muslims must pray fifty times per day; however, Moses told Muhammad that it was very difficult for the people and urged Muhammad to ask for a reduction, until finally it was reduced to five times per day.
There are different accounts of what occurred during the Mi‘raj, but most narratives have the same elements: Muhammad ascended into heaven with the angel Gabriel and met a different prophet at each of the seven levels of heaven; first Adam, then John the Baptist and Jesus, then Joseph, then Idris, then Aaron, then Moses, and lastly Abraham. After Muhammad meets with Abraham, he continues on to meet God without Gabriel. God tells Muhammad that his people must pray 50 times a day, but as Muhammad descends back to Earth, he meets Moses who tells Muhammad to go back to God and ask for fewer prayers because 50 is too many. Muhammad goes between Moses and God nine times, until the prayers are reduced to the five daily prayers, which God will reward tenfold. That again, Moses told Muhammad to ask for even lesser but Muhammad felt ashamed and said that even with lesser prayer times, his followers might not even perform diligently and said he is thankful for the five.
Al-Tabari is a classic and authentic source for Islamic research. His description of the Mi’raj is just as simplified as the description given above, which is where other narratives and hadiths of the Mi’raj stem from, as well as word of mouth. While this is the simplest description of the Mi’raj, others include more details about the prophets that Muhammad meets. In accounts written by Muslim, Bukhari, Ibn Ishaq, Ahmad b. Hanbal and others, physical descriptions of the prophets are given. Adam is described first as being Muhammad’s father, which establishes a link between them as first and last prophets. Physical descriptions of Adam show him as tall and handsome with long hair. Idris, who is not mentioned as much as the other prophets Muhammad meets, is described as someone who was raised to a higher status by God. Joseph, is described as the most beautiful man who is like the moon. His presence in the Mi’raj is to show his popularity and how it relates to Muhammad’s. Aaron is described as Muhammad’s brother who is older and one of the most beautiful men that Muhammad had met. Again, the love for Aaron by his people relates to Muhammad and his people. Abraham is described with likeness to Muhammad in ways that illustrate him to be Muhammad’s father. Jesus is usually linked to John the Baptist, who is not mentioned much. The physical descriptions of Jesus vary, but he is said to be tall with long hair and either red or white skin. Moses is different than the other prophets that Muhammad meets in that Moses stands as a point of difference rather than similarities.
Some narratives also record events that preceded the heavenly ascent. Some scholars believe that the opening of Muhammad’s breast was a cleansing ritual that purified Muhammad before he ascended into heaven. Muhammad’s chest was opened up and water of Zamzam was poured on his heart giving him wisdom, belief, and other necessary characteristics to help him in his ascent. This purification is also seen in the trial of the drinks. It is debated when it took place—before or after the ascent—but either way it plays an important role in determining Muhammad’s spiritual righteousness.
Ibn ‘Abbas' Primitive Version
Ibn ‘Abbas' Primitive Version narrates all that Muhammad encounters throughout his journey through heaven. This includes seeing other angels, and seas of light, darkness, and fire. With Gabriel as his companion, Muhammad meets four key angels as he travels through the heavens. These angels are the Rooster angel (whose call influences all earthly roosters), Half-Fire Half-Snow angel (who provides an example of God’s power to bring fire and ice in harmony), the Angel of Death (who describes the process of death and the sorting of souls), and the Guardian of Hellfire (who shows Muhammad what hell looks like). These four angels are met in the beginning of Ibn ‘Abbas' narrative. They are mentioned in other accounts of Muhammad’s ascension, but they are not talked about with as much detail as Ibn ‘Abbas provides. As the narrative continues, Ibn Abbas focuses mostly on the angels that Muhammad meets rather than the prophets. There are rows of angels that Muhammad encounters throughout heaven, and he even meets certain deeply devoted angels called cherubim. These angels instill fear in Muhammad, but he later sees them as God’s creation, and therefore not harmful. Other important details that Ibn ‘Abbas adds to the narrative are the Heavenly Host Debate, the Final Verses of the Cow Chapter, and the Favor of the Prophets. These important topics help to outline the greater detail that Ibn ‘Abbas uses in his Primitive Version.
Some debates that Ibn ‘Abbas' narrative brings about have to do with his description of Muhammad’s encounter with God. Ibn ‘Abbas illustrates God as a human who touches and speaks to Muhammad as a human would. This is seen as an abomination<by whom></ref> and thus takes away Ibn ‘Abbas’s authenticity. In an attempt to reestablish Ibn ‘Abbas as authentic, it seems as though a translator added the descent of Muhammad and the meeting with the prophets. The narrative only briefly states the encounters with the prophets, and does so in a way that is in chronological order rather than the normal order usually seen in ascension narratives. Ibn ‘Abbas may have left out the meeting of the prophets and the encounter with Moses that led to the reduction of daily prayers because those events were already written elsewhere. Whether he included that in his original narrative or if it was added by a later translator is unknown, but often a point of contention when discussing Ibn ‘Abbas’s Primitive Version.
The Lailat al-Mi'raj (Arabic: لیلة المعراج, Lailatu 'l-Miʿrāj), also known as Shab-e-Mi'raj (Urdu: شب معراج, Šab-e Mi'râj, Persian: شب معراج, Šab-e Mi'râj) in Iran, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, and Miraç Kandili in Turkish, is the Muslim holiday celebrating the Isra and Miʿraj. Some Muslims celebrate this event by offering optional prayers during this night, and in some Muslim countries, by illuminating cities with electric lights and candles. The celebrations around this day tend to focus on every Muslim who wants to celebrate it. Worshippers gather into mosques and perform prayer and supplication. Some people may pass their knowledge on to others by telling them the story on how Muhammad's heart was purified by the archangel Gabriel, who filled him with knowledge and faith in preparation to enter the seven levels of heaven. After salah, food and treats are served.
Al-Aqsa Mosque marks the place from which Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven. The exact date of the Journey is not clear, but is celebrated as though it took place before the Hegira and after Muhammad's visit to the people of Ta'if. It is considered by some to have happened just over a year before the Hijrah, on the 27th of Rajab; but this date is not always recognized. This date would correspond to the Julian date of February 26, 621, or, if from the previous year, March 8, 620. In TwelverIran for example, Rajab 27 is the day of Muhammad's first calling or Mab'as. The al-Aqsa Mosque and surrounding area, marks the place from which Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven, is the third-holiest place on earth for Muslims.
Many sects and offshoots belonging to Islamic mysticism interpret Muhammad's night ascent – the Isra and Mi'raj – to be an out-of-body experience through nonphysical environments, unlike the Sunni Muslims or mainstream Islam. The mystics claim Muhammad was transported to Jerusalem and onward to the Seven Heavens, even though "the apostle's body remained where it was."Esoteric interpretations of the Quran emphasise the spiritual significance of Miʿraj, seeing it as a symbol of the soul's journey and the potential of humans to rise above the comforts of material life through prayer, piety and discipline.
- ^Martin, Richard C.; Arjomand, Saïd Amir; Hermansen, Marcia; Tayob, Abdulkader; Davis, Rochelle; Voll, John Obert, eds. (December 2, 2003). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Macmillan Reference USA. p. 482. ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8.
- ^ abQuran 17:1 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
- ^ abcBradlow, Khadija (August 18, 2007). "A night journey through Jerusalem". Times Online. Retrieved March 27, 2011. [dead link]
- ^Colby, Frederick S. (2008). Narrating Muhammad's Night Journey: Teaching the Development of the Ibn 'Abbas Ascension Discourse. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7518-8.
- ^Bukhari Volume 1, Book 7, Number 331
- ^Heribert Busse, "Jerusalem in the Story of Prophet Muhammad's (SAW) Night Journey and Ascension," Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 14 (1991): 1–40.
- ^N. Robinson, Discovering The Qur'ân: A Contemporary Approach To A Veiled Text, 1996, SCM Press Ltd.: London, p. 192.
- ^"Surat Al-Baqarah [2:143-144] - The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم". quran.com.
- ^Momina. "isra wal miraj". chourangi. Archived from the original on 2012-06-15. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
- ^"Meraj Article". duas.org.
- ^ abMi'raj — The night journey[permanent dead link]
- ^IslamAwareness.net - Isra and Mi'raj, The Details
- ^About.com - The Meaning of Isra' and Mi'raj in Islam
- ^Vuckovic, Brooke Olson (December 30, 2004). Heavenly Journeys, Earthly Concerns: The Legacy of the Mi'raj in the Formation of Islam (Religion in History, Society and Culture). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-96785-3.
- ^Mahmoud, Omar (April 25, 2008). "The Journey to Meet God Almighty by Muhammad—Al-Isra". Muhammad: an evolution of God. AuthorHouse. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-4343-5586-7. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- ^al-Tabari (1989). The History of al-Tabari volume VI: Muhammad at Mecca. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-88706-706-9.
- ^ abcVuckovic, Brooke Olsen (2005). Heavenly Journeys, Earthly Concerns: The Legacy of the Mi'raj in the Formation of Islam. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96785-6.
- ^ abColby, Frederick S (2008). Narrating Muhammad's Night Journey: Tracing the Development of the Ibn 'Abbas Ascension Discourse. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7518-8.
- ^"BBC - Religions - Islam: Lailat al Miraj". bbc.co.uk.
- ^"WRMEA - Islam in America". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs.
- ^Jonathan M. Bloom; Sheila Blair (2009). The Grove encyclopedia of Islamic art and architecture. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- ^Oleg Grabar (1 October 2006). The Dome of the Rock. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-674-02313-0. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- ^Brent E. McNeely, "The Miraj of Prophet Muhammad in an Ascension Typology", p3
- ^Buhlman, William, "The Secret of the Soul", 2001, ISBN 978-0-06-251671-8, p111
- ^Brown, Dennis; Morris, Stephen (2003). "Religion and Human Experience". A Student's Guide to A2 Religious Studies: for the AQA Specification. Rhinegold Eeligious Studies Study Guides. London, UK: Rhinegold. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-904226-09-3. OCLC 257342107. Retrieved 2012-01-10.
- A. Bevan, Muhammad's Ascension to Heaven, in "Studien zu Semitischen Philologie und Religionsgeschichte Julius Wellhausen," (Topelman, 1914, pp. 53–54.)
- B. Schrieke, "Die Himmelsreise Muhammeds," Der Islam 6 (1915–16): 1-30
- Colby, Frederick. The Subtleties of the Ascension: Lata'if Al-Miraj: Early Mystical Sayings on Muhammad's Heavenly Journey. City: Fons Vitae, 2006.
- Hadith On Isra and Mi'raj fromSahih Muslim
- Colby, Frederick, "Night Journey (Isra & Mi'raj), in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol II, pp. 420–425.
Abbas Ibn Malik reported that Malik Ibn Sasaa said that Allah's Messenger described to them his Night Journey saying: "While I was lying in Al-Hatim or Al-Hijr, suddenly someone came to me and cut my body open from here to here." I asked Al-Jarud, who was by my side, "What does he mean?" He said: "It means from his throat to his pubic area," or said, "From the top of the chest." The Prophet further said, "He then took out my heart. Then a gold tray of Belief was brought to me and my heart was washed and was filled (with Belief) and then returned to its original place. Then a white animal which was smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey was brought to me." (On this Al-Jarud asked: "Was it the Buraq, 0 Abu Hamza?" I (i.e. Anas) replied in the affirmative. The Prophet said: 'The animal's step (was so wide that it) reached the farthest point within the reach of the animal's sight. I was carried on it, and Gabriel set out with me till we reached the nearest heaven.
"When he asked for the gate to be opened, it was asked, 'Who is it?' Gabriel answered, 'Gabriel.' It was asked, 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied, 'Muhammad.' It was asked, 'Has Muhammad been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said, 'He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' The gate was opened, and when I went over the first heaven, I saw Adam there. Gabriel said (to me): 'This is your father, Adam; pay him your greetings.' So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said:'You are welcomed, 0 pious son and pious Prophet.'
Then Gabriel ascended with me till we reached the second heaven. Gabriel asked for the gate to be opened. It was asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel answered: 'Gabriel.' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied, 'Muhammad.' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel answered in the affirmative. Then it was said: 'He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' The gate was opened. "When I went over the second heaven, there I saw John (Yahya) and Jesus (Isa), who were cousins of each other. Gabriel said (to me): 'These are John and Jesus; pay them your greetings.' So I greeted them and both of them returned my greetings to me and said, 'You are welcomed, 0 pious brother and pious Prophet.'
Then Gabriel ascended with me to the third heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel replied: 'Gabriel.' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied, 'Muhammad.' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said: 'He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is!' The gate was opened, and when I went over the third heaven there I saw Joseph (Yusuf). Gabriel said (to me): 'This is Joseph; pay him your greetings.' So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said: 'You are welcomed, 0 pious brother and pious Prophet.'
Then Gabriel ascended with me to the fourth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel replied, 'Gabriel' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied: 'Muhammad.' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said: 'He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is!' "The gate was opened, and when I went over the fourth heaven, there I saw Enoch (Idris). Gabriel said (to me): This is Enoch; pay him your greetings.' So I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said: 'You are welcomed, 0 pious brother and pious Prophet.'
Then Gabriel ascended with me to the fifth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel replied: 'Gabriel.' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied: 'Muhammad.' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said: "He is welcomed, what an excellent visit his is! So when I went over the fifth heaven, there I saw Aaron (Harun), Gabriel said (to me): 'This is Aaron; pay him your greetings.' I greeted him and he returned the greeting to me and said: 'You are welcomed, 0 pious brother and pious Prophet.'
Then Gabriel ascended with me to the sixth heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel replied, 'Gabriel.' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied: 'Muhammad.' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative. It was said: 'He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' "When I went (over the sixth heaven), there I saw Moses (Musa). Gabriel said (to me): 'This is Moses; pay him your greeting. So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said: 'You are welcomed, 0 pious brother and pious Prophet.' When I left him (i.e. Moses) he wept. Someone asked him: 'What makes you weep?' Moses said: 'I weep because after me there has been sent (as Prophet) a young man whose followers will enter Paradise in greater numbers than my followers.'
Then Gabriel ascended with me to the seventh heaven and asked for its gate to be opened. It was asked: 'Who is it?' Gabriel replied: 'Gabriel.' It was asked: 'Who is accompanying you?' Gabriel replied: 'Muhammad.' It was asked: 'Has he been called?' Gabriel replied in the affirmative. Then it was said: 'He is welcomed. What an excellent visit his is!' "So when I went (over the seventh heaven), there I saw Abraham (Ibrahim). Gabriel said (to me): This is your father; pay your greetings to him.' So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said: 'You are welcomed, 0 pious son and pious Prophet.'
Then I was made to ascend to Sidrat-ul-Muntaha (i.e. the Lote Tree of the utmost boundary). Behold! Its fruits were like the jars of Hajr (i.e. a place near Medina) and its leaves were as big as the ears of elephants. Gabriel said: 'This is the Lote Tree of the utmost boundary.' Behold! There ran four rivers; two were hidden and two were visible, I asked: 'What are these two kinds of rivers, 0 Gabriel?' He replied: 'As for the hidden rivers, they are two rivers in Paradise and the visible rivers are the Nile and the Euphrates.'
'Then Al-Bait-ul-Mamur (i.e. the Sacred House) was shown to me and a container full of wine and another full of milk and a third full of honey were brought to me. I took the milk. Gabriel remarked: 'This is the Islamic religion which you and your followers are following.'
Then the prayers were enjoined on me: they were fifty prayers a day. When I returned, I passed by Moses, who asked (me): 'What have you been ordered to do?' I replied: 'I have been ordered to offer fifty prayers a day.' Moses said: 'Your followers cannot bear fifty prayers a day, and by Allah I have tested people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel (in vain). Go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your followers' burden.' So I went back, and Allah reduced ten prayers for me. Then again I came to Moses, but he repeated the same as he had said before. Then again I went back to Allah, and He reduced ten more prayers. When I came back to Moses he said the same. I went back to Allah, and He ordered me to observe ten prayers a day. When I came back to Moses, he repeated the same advice, so I went back to Allah and was ordered to observe five prayers a day.
"When I came back to Moses, he said: 'What have you been ordered?' I replied: 'I have been ordered to observe five prayers a day.' He said: 'Your followers cannot bear five prayers a day, and no doubt, I have got an experience of the people before you, and I have tried my level best with Bani Israel, so go back to your Lord and ask for reduction to lessen your followers' burden.' I said: 'I have requested so much of my Lord that I feel ashamed, but I am satisfied now and surrender to Allah's Order.' When I left, I heard a voice saying: 'I have passed My order and have lessened the burden of My worshippers."'