Case Study Diabetes Mellitus Scribd Pdf




Diabetes is first recorded in English, in the form diabete, in a medical text written around1425. In 1675,

Thomas Willis

added the word


, from the


meaning "honey", areference to the sweet taste of the urine. This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by theancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians. In 1776, Matthew Dobsonconfirmed that the sweet taste was because of an excess of a kind of sugar in the urine andblood of people with diabetes.Diabetes mellitus is a chronic insulin deficiency or resistance, diabetes mellitus ischaracterized by disturbances of carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. It is a major riskfactor for myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, renal failure, peripheral vascular disease. It is also the leading cause of blindness in adults. The cause of DM is unknown Though there are predisposing factors as follows:1.) Stress- it stimulates secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine and glucocorticoids,these hormones elevate glucose levels by glycogenesis and glucogenesis2.) Heredity- it is strongly associated with Type II DM3.) Obesity- Adipose tissues are resistant to insulin, therefore, glucose uptake by the cellsis poor 4.) Viral Infection- Increase risk to autoimmune disorders that may affect the pancreas5.) Autoimmunity- it is more associated with Type II DM, This is because it is the childrenwho are more prone to viral infection


The term


, without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus, whichroughly translates to excessive sweet urine (known as "glycosuria"). Several rare conditions arealso named diabetes. The most common of these is diabetes insipidus in which large amountsof urine are produced (polyuria), which is not sweet (insipidus meaning "without taste" in Latin).The term "type 1 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including childhood-onsetdiabetes, juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Likewise, the term"type 2 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Beyond these twotypes, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature. Various sources have defined "type 3diabetes" as: gestational diabetes insulin-resistant type 1 diabetes (or "double diabetes"), type 2


Chan-Cua said the Philippines is still low on this score compared withother countries, especially Scandinavian nations like Finland, Sweden, and Norway, butwe are also seeing an increase every year. Moreover, mathematical modeling on projection yields that 380 million people are expected to develop diabetes by 2025 basedon International Diabetes Federation/World Health Organization data, a good percentagewill be coming from Southeast Asian countries, including the Philippines. This findingis no longer astonishing considering the latest statistics on Filipinos afflicted withdiabetes and hypertension which continues to increase on the scale of medical records.This goes to show that statistics on Diabetes Mellitus in the Philippines continues to beunfavorable to the general population because of the continuous rise in the number of Filipinos developing diabetes every year which adds to the number of people whocannot enjoy life and are becoming less productive due to this disease.


The researches have the following objectives in this case study:

Described and explained Diabetes Mellitus together with the risk factorscontributing to the occurrence of the condition.

Reviewed the anatomy and physiology of the organs involved.

Interpreted the results in the laboratory and diagnostic procedures donewith the patient including their purposes, and specific nursingresponsibilities before, during and after the procedure.

Enumerated the different medications administered for the condition, their indications and specific nursing responsibilities.

Formulated significant nursing diagnoses, with their significantly relatednursing care plans.

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