Structural Functionalism is a sociological theory that attempts to explain why society functions the way it does by focusing on the relationships between the various social institutions that make up society (e.g., government, law, education, religion, etc).
The structural-functional approach is a perspective in sociology that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. It asserts that our lives are guided by social structures, which are relatively stable patterns of social behavior. Social structures give shape to our lives - for example, in families, the community, and through religious organizations. And certain rituals, such as a handshake or complex religious ceremonies, give structure to our everyday lives. Each social structure has social functions, or consequences for the operation of society as a whole. Education, for example, has several important functions in a society, such as socialization, learning.
Thus, one of the key ideas in Structural Functionalism is that society is made-up of groups or institutions, which are cohesive, share common norms, and have a definitive culture.Robert K. Merton argued that functionalism is about the more static or concrete aspects of society, institutions like government or religions. However, any group large enough to be a social institution is included in Structural Functionalist thinking, from religious denominations to sports clubs and everything in between. Structural Functionalism asserts that the way society is organized is the most natural and efficient way for it to be organized.
Gender inequality offers a good illustration. According to Structural Functionalist thought, women being subordinate to men allows the cogs of society to function smoothly as everyone in the society knows his or her respective position in the hierarchy. The implication, of course, is that, because society is functioning smoothly with gender stratification, such stratification is acceptable and efforts should not be made to change the arrangement. This example illustrates that Structural Functionalism is generally seen as being supportive of the status quo.
Another key characteristic of Structural Functionalism is that it views society as constantly striving to be at a state of equilibrium, which suggests there is an inherent drive within human societies to cohere or stick together. This is known as the cohesion issue. Societies strive toward equilibrium, not through dictatorial mandate by the leaders of society but rather because the social structure of societies encourages equilibrium.
For example, Jim Crow laws in the southern United States were a formalized version of informal structural advantages that empowered whites. Because of the history of slavery in the southern United States, whites had amassed more wealth than blacks. During slavery, whites controlled the government and all of the major institutions in the South. After slavery ended, whites continued to control many of these institutions, but because they were outnumbered in some areas by blacks, threatening their dominance, they instituted formal laws, Jim Crow laws, that allowed them to maintain their structural advantages. And whites were able to pass these laws because they already controlled many of the social institutions instrumental in the passage of laws (e.g., courts, government, businesses, etc.). Thus, the advantages whites had prior to a change in society allowed them to maintain their advantages after the change through both informal and formal means because of the structure of society.
Structural Functionalism does much to explain why certain aspects of society continue as they always have, despite some phenomena being clearly less beneficial for society as a whole (e.g., Jim Crow laws). However, Structural Functionalism falls short in explaining opposition to social institutions and social structure by those being oppressed.
There are a number of key assumptions in Structural Functionalist theory. One of these, that societies strives toward equilibrium, was detailed above. Another assumption is that institutions are distinct and should be studied individually. Structural Functionalists look at institutions individually as though they are divorced from other institutions. This is a mistake, as institutions are interlinked in society and those employing a structural functionalist approach should be taken into consideration the network of relationships that exist between these institutions.
Definitions of Concepts
Social cohesion describes the bonds that bring people together in a society. In order for groups to be cohesive in a social context, positive membership attitudes and behaviors have to be produced and maintained. Social cohesion can be looked at on both an individual and group level. Individual-levels include: an individual’s desire or intention to remain a part of a group, her attitudes and beliefs about the group, the individuals’ intention to sever, weaken, maintain, or strengthen her membership or participation in a groups, and her susceptibility to group influence. Social cohesion at a group level is directly affected by the individual members.
Social inequality refers to any scenario in which individuals in a society do not have equal social status. Areas of potential inequality include voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, the extent of property rights and access to education, health care, quality housing and other social goods. Social inequality is an important characteristic of Structural Functionalism as the theory assumes, since inequality exists, there needs to be a certain level of inequality in order for a society to operate. One possible function of inequality is to motivate people,as people are motivated to carry out work through a rewards system. Rewards may include income, status, prestige, or power.
Interdependence is a central theme in structural functionalism; it refers to the parts of society sharing a common set of principles. Institutions, organizations, and individuals are all interdependent with one another.
Equilibrium, in a social context, is the internal and external balance in a society. While temporary disturbances may upset the equilibrium of society, because of social structure, society will eventually return to a balanced, orderly state. That society strives toward equilibrium also means that changes happen slowly.
Propositions are proposed relationships between two concepts. This section explores some of the propositions of structural functionalism.
One proposition derived from Structural Functionalist theory is that people have social capital, and that greater amounts of social capital translate into benefits. Well integrated members of an institution (those with substantial social capital) will remain members of the institution in order to maximize the potential of their social capital. Schepens found support for this proposition by examining religious switching; less than 5% of church members in the Netherlands shift their church associations during their lifetime, conserving and maximizing their social capital.
One of the assumptions of Structural Functionalism is that a society is cohesive if it consists of various intermediate groups which share the same norms. This assumption leads to another proposition: The higher the level of integration between these intermediate groups, the more cohesive society will be as a whole. The absence of social cohesion can result in greater violence toward others and one's self.
General Conceptual Diagram
The diagram below is a general conceptual diagram of Structural functionalism. It shows that all of the different organizations and institutions in society are interdependent. When one institution in society changes, other institutions accommodate that change by changing as well, though the ultimate effect is to slow overall change.
Specific Conceptual Diagram
Below is a chart depicting how deviance is functional for society and how society responds to deviance. A "deviant" individual commits an act that is deemed by the rest of society as criminal, because it leads to public outrage and punishments. Because a large portion of society respond to the action as though it is deviant, this draws a boundary between what is and is not deviant. Thus, deviance actually helps to indicate what is not deviant, or, the function of labeling behaviors or ideas as deviance is to insure that most people do not engage in those behaviors.
History of Structural functionalism
Functionalism developed slowly over time with the help of many sociologists in different parts of the world. Perhaps the most significant contributors to the initial development of this theory are Émile Durkheim and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown. However, we begin with Herbert Spencer.
Herbert Spencer, an English sociologist, was a forerunner of formalized Structural Functioanlism. He is best known for coining the phrase "survival of the fittest" in his book Principles of Sociology (1896). Spencer’s intention was to support a societal form of natural selection. One of the primary focii in Spencer's work was societal equilibrium. Spencer argued that there is a natural tendency in society towards equilibrium. Thus, even when the conditions of the society are altered, the resulting changes to the social structure will balance out, returning the society to equilibrium.
In the late 19th century French Sociologist Émile Durkheim laid the primary foundations of Structural Functionalism. Durkheim's theory was, at least in part, a response to evolutionary speculations of theorists such as E.B. Taylor. Durkheim originally wanted to explain social institutions as a shared way for individuals in society to meet their own biological needs. He wanted to understand the value of cultural and social traits by explaining them in regards to their contribution to the operation of the overall system of society and life. Later the focus for structural functionalism changed to be more about the ways that social institutions in society meet the social needs of individuals within that society.
Durkheim was interested in four main aspects of society: (1) why societies formed and what holds them together, (2) religion, (3) suicide, and (4) deviance and crime. Durkheim addressed his first focus in his book, The Division of Labor in Society. Durkheim noticed that the division of labor was evident across all societies and wanted to know why. Durkheim’s answer to this question can be found in his idea of "solidarity". In older, more primitive societies Durkheim argued that "mechanical solidarity kept everyone together. Mechanic Solidarity here refers to everyone doing relatively similar tasks. For instance, in hunting and gathering societies there was not a substantial division of labor; people hunted or gathered. Durkheim theorized that shared values, common symbols, and systems of exchange functioned as the tools of cohesion in these societies.  In essence, members of society performed similar tasks to keep the community running. In more modern and complex societies individuals are quite different and they do not perform the same tasks. However, the diversity actually leads to a different form of solidarity - interdependence. Durkheim referred to this as "organic solidarity.". Organic solidarity leads to a strong sense of individuals being dependent on one another. For instance, while a construction worker may be able to build homes for people, if he is injured on the job, he will turn to a doctor for treatment (and probably a lawyer to sue his employer). The division of labor in society requires specialization, and the result is organic solidarity.
Durkheim's work on suicide was also tied to structural functionalism. In his book, Suicide, Durkheim hypothesized that social relationships reduced the likelihood of suicide. By collecting data across large groups in Europe, Durkheim was able to distinguish patterns in suicide rates and connect those patterns with other variables. Throughout the book, Durkheim explained that the weaker social ties a society possessed the more likely they were to commit suicide. Inversely, the greater the cohesive bond between individuals the less likely one was to commit suicide. One concrete example Durkheim explored was the difference in solidarity between Protestants and Catholics. Due to a variety of factors, Durkheim argued that Protestants had lower social solidarity than Catholics, and their weaker bonds resulted in higher rates of suicide. Thus, solidarity helped maintain societal order.
Another thread in the development of Structural Functionalism comes from England, where it emerged from the study of anthropology in the early twentieth century in the theorizing of Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown. Malinowski argued that cultural practices had physiological and psychological functions, such as the satisfaction of desires.
Radcliffe-Brown’s structural functionalism focused on social structure. He argued that the social world constituted a separate "level" of reality, distinct from those of biological forms (people) and inorganic forms. Radcliffe-Brown argued that explanations of social phenomena had to be constructed at the social level. To Radcliffe-Brown this meant that people were merely replaceable, temporary occupants of social roles, that were of no inherent worth. To Radcliffe-Brown, individuals were only significant in relation to their positions in the overall structure of social roles in society.
In the United States, functionalism was formalized in sociological thinking by Talcott Parsons, who introduced the idea that there are stable structural categories that make up the interdependent systems of a society and functioned to maintain society. He argued that this homeostasis is the critical characteristic of societies. Parsons supported individual integration into social structures, meaning that individuals should find how they fit into the different aspects of society on their own, rather than being assigned roles. Parsons saw social systems as "a plurality of individual actors interacting with each other in a situation which has at least a physical or environmental aspect, actors who are motivated in terms of a tendency to the "optimization of gratification" and whose relation to their situations, including each other, is defined and mediated in terms of a system of culturally structured and shared symbols." The foundation of Parsons’ social system is the status-role complex, which consists of structural elements or positions that individuals hold in a system. These positions are referred to as statuses and are occupied by individuals who must carry out the roles in order to maintain the order of the system. Therefore, within this social system individuals perform certain roles to fulfill the system’s functions; these roles are a function of their statuses. As society progresses there are new roles and statuses that occur, allowing individuals to express their unique personalities resulting in individualism.
Another important aspect of Parsons’ social systems argument is his theory of action. Parsons developed the theory of action based on the idea that the decision making of an individual in a social system has motivational significance to himself. The individual is constantly reminded of the norms and values of society, which binds him to society. The individual is, therefore, motivated to reach personal goals that are defined by their cultural system and simultaneously these goals benefit society as a whole.
Structural functionalism was the dominant approach of sociology between World War II and the Vietnam War.
In the 1960’s Structural Functionalism was quite popular and used extensively in research. It was “… perhaps the dominant theoretical orientation in sociology and anthropology”. However, by the 1970’s, it was no longer so widely credited. "Structural Functionalism has lost much importance, but modified it directs much sociological inquiry."
Modern Examples of Structural Functionalist Oriented Research
September 11, 2001
On September 11, 2001 modern American culture was disoriented due to an attack . This event affected both American travel customs, reflecting the Structural Functionalist idea that a change in one element of society results in changes in other aspects of society. Before the attacks, airport security in the U.S. existed, but they changed substantially as a result of the attacks. Scrutiny of travelers was heightened and included new protocols, like the removal of shoes, belts, and eventually liquids, as well as random, more detailed screenings. Thus, a change in the cultural sense of security resulted in a corresponding change in travel protocol.
Increase in Technology
Modern technology has resulted in substantial changes to the economy and the military. Before the advent of telephones, the internet, and video conferencing, most business meetings occurred face to face. If an individual had a business proposal for a company in San Francisco but lived in New York, she would have to travel to San Francisco. Modern technology has changed this, reducing the necessity of business travel. As a result, the function of face to face meetings in business have changed; they are no longer a necessary part of social interactions and have therefore begun to lose their structural role.
Likewise, The traditional approach to war between two nations was an all out invasion involving hundreds of thousands if not millions of troops. During WWI, America sent over two million men to fight. During WWII, America sent over eleven million soldiers to fight. During the Korean War America sent approximately 1.5 million troops. And finally in 1990, just over 700,000 soldiers fought in Operation Desert Storm. Due to the increase in military technology and new military tactical norms the number of military personnel present in war zones has dramatically decreased. When America invaded Iraq in 2003, they sent 150,000. Modern technology, including advanced, long-range weapons and unmanned drones, have changed the function of mass invasions.
- ↑ abcdHak, Durk. 2007. "Stark and Finke or Durkheim on Conversion and (Re-)Affiliation: An Outline of a Structural Functionalist Rebuttal to Stark and Finke." Social Compass. 54, 2:295-312.
- ↑ abcSjoberg, Gideon. Contradictory Functional Requirements and Social Systems. Sage Publications, Inc., June 1960.
- ↑ abFriedkin, Noah E. 2004. Social Cohesion. Annual Review of Sociology. 30:409-25.
- ↑Bain, A. “Spencer’s, Principles of Sociology.” Fair Use. Mind. Volume 1 No. 1, 1876.<http://fair-use.org/mind/1876/01/critical-notices/the-principles-of-sociology>
- ↑ abcPorth, E., Neutzling, K., & Edwards, J. (n.d.). Anthropological Theories - Department of Anthropology - The University of Alabama. The University of Alabama. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from http://anthropology.ua.edu/cultures/cultures.php
- ↑Durkheim, Emile. Division of Labor in Society. N.p.: Free Press, 1997.
- ↑ abPerrin, Robert G. 1973. “The Functionalist Theory of Change Revisited.” The Pacific Sociologist Review 16,1.
- ↑Pope, Whitney. “Inside Organic Solidarity.” American Sociological Review 48.5 (1983)
- ↑Bottomore, Tom. Competing Paradigms in Macrosociology. Annual Review of Sociology, Aug. 1975.
The Culture of Consumption
Consumerism is an important American value. We learn consumerism at an early age. Children watch commercials with McDonald’s and Disney products flashed on the screen. Marketing agencies learn what groups to target at certain times of the day. Billions of dollars are spent on advertising each year. Most of us think advertising has no affect on what we buy or wear but if this were true, why would corporations spend so much money promoting their products through the mass media?
The excerpt below from Eric Schlosser’s Fast Food Nation (2002) describes how the fast food industry targets children as consumers:
Although the fast food chains annually spend about $3 billion on television advertising, their marketing efforts directed at children extend far beyond such conventional ads. The McDonald’s Corporation now operates more than eight thousand playgrounds at its restaurants in the United States. Burger King has more than two thousand. A manufacturer of “playlands” explains why fast food operators build these largely plastic structures: “Playlands bring in children, who bring in parents, who bring in money.” As American cities and towns spend less money on children’s recreation, fast food restaurants have become gathering spaces for families with young children…The seesaws, slides and pits full of plastic balls have proven to be effective lure. “But when it gets down to brass tacks,” a Brandweek article on fast food notes, “the key to attracting kids is toys, toys, toys.”
The fast food industry has forged promotional links with the nation’s leading toy manufacturers, giving away simple toys with children’s meals and selling more elaborate ones at a discount. The major toy crazes of recent years—including Poke’mon cards, Cabbage Patch Kids and Tamogotchis—have been abetted by fast food promotions. A successful promotion easily doubles or triples the weekly sales volume of children’s meals. The chains often distribute numerous versions of a toy, encouraging repeat visits by small children and adult collectors who hope to obtain complete sets.
While most of us would like to think that the advertising industry does not affect our consumption patterns, the truth is that it does. Even parents are coerced into buying products that are advertised to their children. In reality, the advertising industry and the mass media affect us in more ways than we may know. We often get our cultural ideal of beauty from the media and from advertising. Women are constantly being forced to compare their bodies to those of supermodels whose body types represent a small percentage of women and whose images are often altered through air brushing and other techniques. In fact, eating disorders are only common in modern societies were the mass media and marketing campaigns have a profound impact on the everyday lives of individuals.
According to the Functionalist Perspective, culture is something that bonds members of society together. Everything that makes up a society’s culture is there to meet human needs. In the case of advertising and consumerism, they function to make our economy healthy. Without mass consumption, our economy would become stagnant, prices would increase, and wages would decline. Also, consumerism allows individuals to creatively express who they are through their choice of what they consume. If someone drives a BMW or a Volvo, they are making a statement about who they are. If someone wants to wear Levis or Gap jeans, they are also making a statement. In other words, consumerism allows us to be individualistic and express ourselves through our possessions.
The Conflict Perspective takes a more critical approach to understanding culture. It points out that culture serves the needs of the capitalist class. In the case of consumerism, who benefits the most? Wealthy corporations benefit much more than the consumers themselves, who are constantly being told they need to buy more products in order to make friends and be accepted in society. Children in schools often know how humiliating it is to not be able to afford nice clothes and drive nice cars. Usually, children from wealthier families are treated better in schools not only by peers, but also by their teachers. In fact, teachers often expect children from a higher socioeconomic status to perform better in school, and these expectations often create a self-fulfilling prophecy.
One term that conflict theorists use to refer to this phenomenon is commodity fetishism. This occurs when a material object is treated with an almost religious devotion. In other words, we worship the products we buy. A fetish is actually an item used by tribal cultures that is believed to possess special power or knowledge. We believe that certain products will give us a special privilege in society and will win us favor with our peers. Commercials and magazine ads show pictures of men getting their clothes torn off by beautiful women when they wear a certain brand of jeans or cologne. Other ads tell women that if they just use this product they will look better and be able to get more attention from men as well. We are seduced by the false promises these ads seem to imply. If you wear Abercrombie, will girls attack you on the beach?
So who really benefits from consumerism and from culture in general? According to the conflict perspective, a small percentage of people in society benefit the most. As an economic system, capitalism is reflected in our culture through values of consumerism and individualism. We are
taught to be good, obedient workers as well as consumers of the products we make. These values divide us into consumer groups who constantly compare our products to others and ridicule those who cannot afford to buy them in the first place. We feel a constant need to buy more things to make us feel better about ourselves and to increase our self esteem. Our needs and wants are never satisfied. We must buy, buy, buy!!
The Symbolic Interaction Perspective is more interested in how culture is created in the first place. How are trends in the fashion world established? What is the symbolic meaning behind our behaviors? Are we mindless consumers or do we have a say in what we buy and whether or not we want to be consumers in the first place? The Social Construction of Reality occurs as we interact with one another and define the meaning behind social actions. In other words, we create our understanding of the world around us. With consumerism and fashion trends, what is in this week may be out the next.