Essay On Jute In Bangladesh Wall

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Abstract:

Handicrafts and Textile Handicraft business is related to the accumulation of handmade product from over the country and to sell them in retail shops or to export in another countries. People have a great passion for this type of product because it contains flavour of culture and it has a variety of design. The SWOT analysis of the Handicraft Product can help us to determine the current situation of business, challenges and gaps between demand and supply, source of raw materials and manpower, potentiality of employment, and its prospect for future. Bangladesh is a developing and overpopulated country; thus labor intensive technology can be more appreciable than capital intensive technology for the industries. Application of a large amount of low compensated workers to produce handicraft product will be beneficial for us from dual aspects. The first one is reduction in un-employment thus poverty alleviation and the second one is the earning of handsome amount of foreign currency. . The paper is concerned with narration of the themes. To prepare this paper I visited some local and export oriented handicraft organizations in Dhaka, Narayanganj etc. and discussed with the organization authorities about their business profile and production aspect. I also visited EPB, Bangladesh to get handicraft goods export data of previous fiscal years, Banglacraft and ECOTA for Handicraft business related information.

Introduction

The importance of the Textile Handicrafts and Handicraft sector in Bangladesh cannot be traced back to any particular point of time. Rooted deeply in the long heritage of the land, it grew gradually over centuries representing the rich, unique traditions of the soil, its people and their distinctive culture. The nourishing factors that helped the sector flourish are love of the artisans for their craft, coupled with their untiring effort to survive against odds. Of late, however facilitating services offered by the public and various private agencies to organize and strengthen the sector have paved the way for better and efficient performance of the sector. This has definitely resulted in an integrated and structured approach toward production and marketing and today the handicraft industry of Bangladesh look much well organized then it was a decade back. However, there is no denying the fact that despite considerable advancement, potential of the sector still appear largely unexplored and a bulk of the resources untapped. Innovative adaptation is yet to reach a satisfactory level. Beside the supply side constraints, dearth of technology and inadequate export marketing drive continue to be the main impediments for speedy growth of the industry.

Handicrafts are mostly defined as “items made by hand, often with the use of simple tools, and are generally artistic and for traditional in nature. They are also object of utility and object of decoration. Some common types of handicrafts are Textile based handicrafts, Clay, Metal, Jewelers, Woodwork, Stone Craft, Glass and Ceramic.

  • Textile based handicrafts:

Hand printed textiles including hand knitted and crochet, block and screen printing, batik, hand printing by pen and tie-dye are used in products ranging from bed-covers to sheets, dress material to upholstery and tapestry. The famous embroidered articles of silk and cotton often embellished with mirrors, shells, beads, and metallic pieces are also found. Embroidery is done too on leather, felt and velvet etc. This segment of the industry accounts for almost half a million strong employment in addition to a large number of designers, block makers, weavers and packers involved in the trade.

  • An Overview of the Handicraft Sector:
    • Nature and structure of the Industry: Handicraft sector in Bangladesh is comprises with small manufacturing units and mostly located in rural areas, operated either by the owner themselves or with the assistance of a small work force of 10-20 people. Most enterprises use traditional techniques with or without the use of tools or simple instruments. Total number of workforce associated with the industry stands approximately over 3 millions of which over three quarters are employed in textile, jute goods, wood, lather, cane and bamboo. These are followed by metal-works and pottery. A rough estimate shows that exports occupy about 20% of the total production. Key players in the sector involved in domestic supplies as well as exporters are:
  • Non Government Organization (NGO) exporters of Handicrafts. (Eg. Arong)
  • NGO supportive product house (Non exporters)
  • Private manufacturers /exporters. (Eg. Various jute good manufacturers)
  • Small private manufacturers (Non exporters, eg. Naksha, Rang, Nabarupa etc.)
  • Flashback of Bangladesh’s Handicraft industry-

After 1970, Bangladesh’s handicraft product was introduced in the market. And in 80s the product got market acceptance, and this became its growth period. In the 90s, the handicraft products of Bangladesh experienced a slow growth, and it is the maturity period of the product. After 2000, the sales of product decreased because of its old design and poor quality. Moreover, new competitors came with newly-designed, innovative and quality product. As a result, Bangladesh’s handicraft product faced a period of decline. Figure-01: Shows Bangladesh’s handicraft product life cycle.

1970-1976      1977-1985      1985-2000       After 2000


Figure-01: Bangladesh’s Handicraft product life cycle.

(Source: ECOTA fair trade forum)

  1. Current profile of some leading Handicraft manufacturers:

There are more than 1000 large scale Handicraft producers in Bangladesh, where only 300 are enlisted with Banglacraft (the association of handicraft manufacturers and exporters). A large no of handicraft producer sells their good in local market and a few numbers are involved in export.

Table-01: Showing some leading organizations current profile.

Organization-

Hathay Bunano p.s.

Naksha

Prabartana

Arong

Prokritee

Type

NGO’s

Private

NGO’s

NGO’s

NGO’S

Start from

2005

1993

1986

1976

2001

Manpower

4000

500

5000

65000

2000

Product House

38

2

653

20

Main product

Kids items (Toys, dresses)

All types of textile Handicrafts

All types of handicrafts

All types of handicrafts

All types of Handicrafts (Specially produce Handmade  paper)

Market

Export

Local

99% Local

96% Local

99% Export

Turn Over

7-8Mn. Taka

100Mn. Taka

700Mn. Taka.

Table-01: Current position of some leading handicraft manufacturers in Bangladesh.

  1. Product Composition and Production Base:

Figure-02: Hand Crochet Toys (Hathay Bunano p.s.)

Figure-03: Jute Footwear

Although a large variety of products feature in the handicraft industry, the numbers of products that dominate in the export sector are not many. These are Shari (Silk, silk-cotton mixed, cotton, jute-cotton mixed, Jamdani, others), Three piece, Punjabi, Fotua, Kids item, Lungi, Gamsa, Towel, Nokshi kanta, Bed cover, Pillow case, Orna, Cotton made pebble, Jute products (College Bag, Shopping bag, Ladies bag, Sandal, Show piece, Sika, Rope, etc), Feather goods, Hand quilting/embroidery, Pottery, Cane Basketry etc. Others less conspicuous include products made out of bamboo, wood, straw, grass, textile wall hangings and various metals. The important thing about this segment of handicraft sector is that these products are focused to international markets, based on importers specifications. Handloom weaving is mainly done in areas which are traditionally specialized in the crafts and as such the manufacturing base is not very wide spread. As regards block, screen printed and vegetable dyed craft etc. the existing supply has its limit.

  1. SWOT analysis of Bangladesh’s Handicraft-
    1. Strength of our Handicrafts: The following issues giving Handicraft business the stamina to compete with the artificial machine made products and effort to take place in domestic and international market-
  2. It provides large product variety and range as it is full of diversified culture.
  3. Industry is facilitated by diversified and supportive retail infrastructure across the country.
  4. Industry provides services to different market (Handicrafts, Textiles, Jewelry) because of diversified product range.
  5. Naturally we are resourceful in craft raw materials.
  6. Industry needs low capital investment.
  7. Low barriers for new entry in market.
  8. Products are high value added, and handicrafts have various applications.
  9. It is the potential source of foreign revenue because of higher export.
  10. Industry provides potential sources of employment.
  1. Impediments for Growth: The following weakness are the main barriers for the Handicraft business development and making business more and more competitive –

Narrow product range and lack of new and innovative designs suitable for overseas markets; have been identified as main constraints for growth of handicraft export from Bangladesh.

Industry is lacking with infrastructure and communication facilities.

Lack of capabilities in producing large volume.

Lack of updated information on changing tastes and preferences of overseas buyers often restricts market access of potential products.

Lack of finance and non-introduction of effective technology are also recognized as major inadequacy for healthy growth of the sector.

Absence of properly equipped design centre, a long cherished demand of the handicraft exporting community, is also responsible for a great deal of the drawbacks in production, design, innovation and adaptation and so on.

Lack of co-ordination between government bodies and private players.

Inadequate information of current market trends.

There is lack of skilled artesian.

Industry is still confined to rural areas and small cities which creates a great transport problem.

Low or no involvement of Technical person such as Textile Engineers, Fashion designers etc.

  1. Opportunity: The Handicraft business can be developed by ensuring proper use of the following opportunities-

GSP in EU markets

Emerging demand for handicrafts goods in developed countries such as USA, UK, Japan, India, Canada, France, Germany, Italy etc.

Rising demand and usage of handicrafts products in fashion industry.

Development of sectors like Retail that offers great requirements of handicrafts products.

Developing of domestic and international tourism sector.

E-commerce and Internet are emerged as promissory distribution channels to market and sell the craft products.

Our cultural and jute good has got values in overseas market.

People likes diversified designs and handmade items

Cheap manpower available in our country.

Potential source of foreign revenue.

  1. Threats for our Handicrafts sector: Our Handicraft business has the following threats which reducing our business and causes of unemployment-
  • Hand-crafted products have to compete on price, design and adaptability with modern machine made products, which make difficulties for our traditional products to be competitive in international market.
  • Artificial automated product produced by competing countries, as Chinese embroidery machine products compete with our hand stitch.
  • Use of polyester, nylon, acrylic and other manmade elements in competing artificial products which reducing the product cost of artificial product.
  • Quality products produced by competing countries like India, Pakistan, China, South Africa, etc.
  • Competing countries are enjoying better Trade Terms sometimes.
  • Competing countries are offering better technological support and R&D facility in their countries.
  1. Prospect for the future:

Although export of handicrafts from Bangladesh is yet to figure prominently, it is true that potential for growth of the sector is immense. Studies/surveys conducted by the EPB and BANGLACRAFT (An association of Handicraft producers and exporters) and ECOTA (Fair trade Forum) provide strong evidence in support of this. In the light of these finding, it appears that the main markets for our handicraft product are in gifts, house wares, home decoration, seasonal products, toys and personal accessories. Scope for expansion of our market opportunities may be viewed keeping in mind the following factors-

  1. Work force:

Abundance of easily available skilled and semi skilled workforce associated with the handicraft industry is indeed a very encouraging factor. Existing workforce in this sector is near about 4 million, most of whom have accepted the craft work as a means of their livelihood. Organized effort towards skill development and product promotion will no doubt enable this remarkable workforce in a much bigger way. Along with workforce, comes the issue of low wage which reduces production cost considerable rendering the products competitive.

  1. Preferential Tariffs and government support in cash:

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) in European and American markets for Bangladeshi handicrafts is an impetus for our exporters and it is making their products competitive. Although implementation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements will gradually phase out such preferential treatment, Bangladesh as a least developing country (LDC) will continue to enjoy the benefits to tariff preference of sometime in future. Some products of handicrafts are enjoying cash incentives on their export which is a great stimulus of encouraging handicrafts export.

  1. Overseas Market and its opportunities:

Organized effort in marketing Bangladeshi handicrafts overseas is, in fact, a matter of recent past-although some of the products were able to find export destinations a little time back. As mentioned earlier, not many products dominate in the export oriented handicraft sector. And all though at present Bangladeshi handicrafts are being exported to well over 50 countries of different continents, more than 70% of the total merchandise is lifted by the European, American, Indian and Japanese market. Table 02: Showing export values of different fiscal years excluding textile handicrafts.

Table 02: Handicraft Export of different FY.

(Source: EPB statistical report)

Fiscal Year (FY)

Export In Million US$

2002-2003

5.90

2003-2004

4.21

2004-2005

5.12

2005-2006

4.30

2006-2007

8.16

2007-2008

5.49

2008-2009

6.44

2009-2010

7.41 (Target)

This is a list of Handicrafts, excluding textile handicraft goods.

Figure-04: Country base export chart of handicraft goods on 3 FYindicating specific market areas. [Which is based on following Handicraft goods- Coir products, Cotton Bag, Jute footwear, Handicrafts, Jamdani sharee, Jute carpet, Jute manufactures, Other textile goods, Silk fabrics, Toys, Wooden furniture.]

(Source: Bangladesh Export Statistics, EPB)

Studies suggested that handicraft export from Bangladesh can find bigger opening in a number of product areas and at the same time consolidate existing export base in some of the traditional product range. Traditional Bangladeshi products which have made some dent in the export market have the potential for increasing their market share significantly. These are traditional decorative textiles (muslin, nakshi kantha, jamdani), block printed, vegetable dyed textiles, artificial flowers, woven jute products, cane basketry, pottery, small leather goods (wallets, purse, belts), etc. Appropriate adaptation of some of the Bangladeshi handicrafts can also be expected to command increased share in the target markets. Figure-04: Showing country based export of three different FY.

The chart is created with the major exporting countries of Bangladesh, it showing a growing market opportunity for handicraft goods in Japan, The Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, Italy, France, UK, Germany, and in our Local market also. But at the same time we have to provide effort to increase export in India and other decrementing large markets. If our government patronizes this marketing process by arranging some international trade fair on only Handicrafts as like DITF then we should be able to capture a large market beside our large competitor India, Pakistan and China.

  • Some suggestions to overcome the problems-

In accordance of the discussion with the craft-peoples, some craft-exporters and BANGLACRAFT the following suggestions has made to make a way for the development of Handicraft’s business in Bangladesh- 

  • Setting up of design development centre is urgently needed for producing new product and product diversification. Crafts men to be trained for better performance, innovation and technology to be provided for overall development of the sector in a design development institute.
  • Set up handicraft industrial park/ handicraft village/clusters of producers linked with lead exporters to ensure sustainability
  • Enhance capacity of the exporters for getting market information.
  • Develop fund for identifying new markets and new products.
  • Access to finance be made easy.
  • Facilitate exporter participation in trade fairs, designing catalogues and preparing for exhibition.
  • Continued and focused attention has to be given to handicrafts for up-gradation of skill, creation of better work environment and development of cluster for specific crafts with common service and improvement of infrastructures and market development.
  • Quality raw materials to be ensured for product diversification.
  • Branding Bangladesh is very essential at this moment because some of the buyers sell our quality products in their brand which is preventing our market growth.
  • Our Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has told that, she will try to “Make Every Home a Industry”. By considering handicraft she can really elaborate it like, “Every home will be a handicraft industry”, because it is the only industry which can flourish at this tough time of gas and energy crisis. PM’s strong campaign for saving environment from climate change may promote the hand made goods like handicrafts globally. An integrated branding and promotion of Bangladeshi Handicrafts can be great tool of poverty alleviation also.
  • Focus will be on capacity building of the SME’s to support all companies to comply with the international product oriented code of conduct.
  • Integrating and redefining of handicraft industry is possible by separating Handicrafts from the “Textile Sector”. It will help to create a new branch of national trade as a unique business beside textile business, that’s why at first EPB need to take steps by separating the handicraft exports from textile exports.
  • Arrangement of International Handicraft Fair to attract more buyers and thus reducing difficulties in entering to overseas market for our Traditional and Non-Traditional Handmade goods.
  • Without a doubt, the global market for handicrafts and hand-made goods is expanding. When customers are faced with two products of similar price, quality and design, they will invariably select hand-made goods in changed world with environment consciousness. The cost of production of hand-made items is smaller in Bangladesh whilst it is possible to make competitively priced handicrafts in Bangladesh, it is important to understand that pricing is one of the key factors for

Figure-05: Work Bring Happiness

(Minoti Mondol produc ing hand knitted craft goods at her home ordered by Prokritee.)

In our country the handicrafts are mainly regulated by non-technical persons who possess very little technical knowledge and there is no involvement of textile engineers (thus product development and quality product is quite impossible). The workers are mainly un-skilled women and children. We can develop this sector as a wide earning sector to contribute to our national economy by involving Textile Experts in this sector and by developing manpower skill. Finally it should be helpful to introduce our tradition or culture to the globe. Efforts are underway through close collaboration of public and private sectors toward product promotion, diversification and export marketing. However, there is still the need for intensification of efforts at the levels of production and marketing as well as design innovation and adaptation. Our exporters of handicrafts should bear in mind that while creation of export market is a challenging task, maintenance of the market is a more challenging one dependent on regular supplies, quality assurance, and last but not the least fulfillment’s of the consumer test and preferences.

Acknowledgements:

I would like to convey special thanks to TTH organizer BTT authority to create a field of research. Grateful thanks to my thesis supervisor Md. Abdul Hannan and my favorite teacher Prof. Dr. Engr. Ayub Nabi Khan for giving me their valuable suggestions. I express gratitude to the employer and employees of Hathay Bunano p.s., Naksha, Kumudini, Arong, Rang, Source (Prokritee), Prabartana, Jute Diversification Promotion Centre, EPB, BANGLACRAFT, ECOTA who gave valuable information to give a confined shape to the study. The errors idiocies and inconsistencies remain my own.

References

  • Mondol, Mr. Abdur Razzak, (2003 “Export of Bangladesh handicrafts present performance and future prospects” Souvenir, Jatio Karuponno Prodorshoni-2003.
  • Shah Jalal, Md. “Concept Note on Development of Handicraft manufactured by the Small and Medium Enterprises of Bangladesh seeking Switch Asia 2008 Project, help of European Commission in promoting Sustainable consumption and Production in Bangladesh.” Report produced for BANGLACRAFT (Bangladesh Handicraft Manufacturers and Exporters Association.)
  • Morshed, Samantha, (2009)  “Textile handicrafts need boost” article published in newspaper, ‘The daily Star’, Tuesday, March 03
  • Morshed, Samantha, (2009) “Taking Jobs to Bangladesh’s poor”, BBC News, Thursday, April-30
  • Rahman, Dr Engr Md Saifur, “Writing A Scientific Paper”.
  • Arefeen, Prof. H.K.S., Salam, Shah Abdus, Sultana, Sayeeda, (2007) “Handicraft Market Chain in Bangladesh”, Chapter-02, “Bangladesh Handicraft Product Life Cycle”, page-26, Published by ECOTA Fair Trade Limited, Dhaka.
  • Statistical Report, (2004-2005, 2005-2006, 2006-2007), Export promotion Bureau, Bangladesh.
  • www.ecotaftf.org
  • www.rang-bd.com
  • www.prokritee.com
  • www.prabartana.org
  • http://mdshossain.wordpress.com/2009/03/17/swot-analysis-of-aarong/
  • http://www.articlesbase.com/art-articles/indian-handicrafts-industry-swot-analysis-327228.html
  • http://www.brac-aarong.com/

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Jute dicotyledenous fibre-yielding plant of the genus Corchorus, order Tiliaceae. Jute was once known as the golden fibre of Bangladesh, since it was the most important cash crop for the country. Jute fibre is produced mainly from two commercially important species, namely White Jute (Corchours capsularis), and Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius). The centre of origin of white jute is said to be Indo-Burma including South China, and that of tossa Africa. The word jute is probably coined from the word jhuta or jota, an Orrisan word. However, the use of jutta potta cloth was mentioned both in the Bible and Monushanghita-Mahabharat. This indicates the ancient uses of jute materials by the people of these areas. There is evidence of the trade of jute cloth in the 16th century. ain-i-akbari (1590) mentions sackcloth originating from Bengal. Jute grows under wide variation of climatic conditions and stress of tropic and subtropics.

It is grown in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Brazil and some other countries. Bangladesh used to enjoy almost a monopoly of this fibre commercially; its share in the export market was 80% in 1947-48 but in 1975-76 it fell to only 25%. This fall in the world market was due to the fact that many countries had started growing jute and allied fibres. The substitutes of jute are multiwalled paper bags, poly-propelin, polythylene, and natural fibres from kenaf, hemp, sida, sunhemp, etc. Jute fibres are used in hessians and gunnies, carpet and rugs, paper, canvas, tarpaulin, handicrafts, etc. Dundi (UK) purchases high class jute of all grades, particularly white and tossa. Belgium, Italy, USA, South America are the buyers of superior quality jute. Jute was cultivated in ancient times in Bengal.

At that time it was more or less a garden plant and its leaves were used as a vegetable and for medicinal purposes.

Jute grows well where the annual rainfall is 1500 mm or more, with at least 250 mm during each of the months of March, April and May. The optimum range of temperature required is 18°-33°C. Jute is cultivated in the rainy season. In Bangladesh sowing usually starts at the end of February and continues up to the end of May, depending on the species.

Cultivation largely depends upon pre-monsoon showers and moisture conditions. C. capsularis is more water tolerant and thus generally can be grown in low lands, and even under water logging conditions, while C. olitorious is more susceptible to water logging and hence cultivated in medium to lower medium lands. Jute can be grown in a number of soil types, ranging from clay to sandy loam with optimum fertility, and soil pH ranging from 5.0-8.6.

Jute is basically self-pollinated and has fourteen diploid chromosomes. It needs long day light for growth. After sowing, four to five months are needed for harvesting of crops. This is done at the flowering stage. The fibre is obtained from the bast or phloem layer of the stem. Jute cultivation is labour intensive and is mostly grown by marginal, poor, and small landowners. For successful cultivation, land preparation is very important. It needs 3-5 times cross ploughing and laddering for uniform smooth soil, which must have more than 20% organic content. Cow dung is generally used, along with NPK in appropriate proportion, according to the soil type. In Bangladesh farmers generally do not use any fertiliser in jute cultivation. However, when used it must be applied in three stages; one at land preparation, and two as top dressing at appropriate time. During cultivation weeding is usually done in addition to thinning.

Generally, 10-12 kg/ha seed is sown by the broadcasting method. In line sowing, lower amount of seeds is required. Traditionally, farmers keep a small part of the crop area for growing seeds until the seeds mature in October/November. After harvesting, plants are bundled together with required number of plants, and kept standing for 5-7 days in the field for shading off the leaves. Then the bundles are put under water. Clear slow flowing water is the best thing possible for good retting. After 12-15 days, when proper retting is completed, the fibre is separated from the stick by hand and then washed and dried in sunlight. After drying, farmers sell the fibre in the local market.

Although jute is grown in almost all the districts of Bangladesh, Faridpur, Tangail, Jessore, Dhaka, Sirajganj, Bogra, and Jamalpur are considered the better growing areas. Total area under the crop is estimated to be 559,838 ha and the total production about 5310,500 bales. bangladesh jute research institute (BJRI) so far has developed about 27 high-yielding and good quality jute cultivars.

Jute products Jute and jute-based products are put to a wide range of uses. Since antiquity it has been used as a raw material for packaging. Before being used as a commercial commodity it was used in different parts of the world to make household and farm implements such as ropes, hand made clothes, wall hangings, etc.

In Bengal sacks and saris made of jute were commonly used in the Middle Age. Export of sacks started in the 18th century. Its leaves and roots were used as herbal medicine, and as vegetable by the local people. Its use as an industrial commodity began in the Crimean war when it was used as a substitute of flax. Its use was popularised primarily in Western Europe, particularly at Dundee. Traditionally, use of jute products are limited to packaging materials like twine, hessian, gunny bag, twill, carpet backing, wool pack, tarpaulin, mats, canvas, wall cover, upholstery, and as furnishing fabrics of different types and natures.

Jute research Jute being a cash crop, by 1900 a fibre expert was appointed by the government of undivided Bengal at the direction of the India Government. He developed a number of superior varieties like Kakya Bombai, D154 (Dhaka 154), and CG (Chinsurah Green). In 1938, the Indian Jute Research Institute was established at Dhaka and technological laboratory was set up at Tullyganj in Kolkata. Jute research was once again initiated at Dhaka through the creating of the Central Jute Committee in 1951 by the Ministry of Agriculture. A Jute Research Institute was established at Tejgaon, Dhaka, in 1957. Located on Manik Mia Avenue at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, the Institute is now named as Bangladesh Jute Research Institute.

The Jute Regulation Directorate was established in 1940 by the provincial government for the regulation of the crop. This department was setup to regulate the cultivation and production of jute and to ensure that it was grown in fixed areas and to see farmers did not grow it more areas than assigned. A Jute Board was set up in 1949 which used to regulate the entire jute trade, and was assisted by the Jute Trading Corporation, Jute Price Stabilization Corporation, and Jute Marketing Corporation. In 1973 the Jute Division was created and put under the direct control of the Finance Ministry so that it could look exclusively on various aspects of jute. In 1976 this Division was converted into full-fledged ministry. Now the International Jute Organisation has its head office in Dhaka. [ABM Abdullah and Md. Anwarul Islam]

Diseases of jute both the species of jute, Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius, suffer from a number of diseases. Of these the most important is stem rot caused by Macrophomina phasiolina. The pathogen may cause infection and damage at all stages of growth of the plants, right from seedling emergence to maturation.

The fungus is primarily seed borne, and over winters in crop residues and soil in the form of sclerotia. Many races of the fungus have been reported from Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. The pathogen is known to have several alternate hosts like cotton, sesame, legumes, and brinjal.

Destruction of crop residues, field sanitation, and crop rotation with non-host crops reduce infection in the following year. Pre-sowing seed treatment with fungicides like Vitavax, Homai, and Cupravit are often recommended. Some common diseases are: Black band- caused by Bitryodiplodia theobromae, Anthracnose- caused by Colletotrichum corchorum, and the disease occurs on the varieties of Corchorus capsularis only, Soft rot- caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is commonly seen in all jute growing areas of Bangladesh, Powdery mildew- caused by Oidium sp produces whitish to ash coloured powdery growth on the leaves, Root knot disease- caused by the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, and Mosaic disease- caused by virus, usually common in Corchorus capsularis. Leaf spot caused by Phyllosticta sp is quite common. [Abul Khair]

Table Insect and mite pests of jute.

English name Local name Scientific name Order Pest status Nature of damage
Jute hairy caterpillar Pater bichha poka Spilosoma obliqua Lepidoptera Major Feeds on leaves
Jute semilooper Pater ghoda poka Anomis sabulifera Lepidoptera Major Feeds on leaves
Jute stem weevil Jute apion/Stem weevil Apion corchori Coleoptera Major Pierces stem resulting in knots
Field cricket Urchubga/Ghugra poka Brachytrypes portentosus Orthoptera Major Damages young plants at the underground level
Yellow mite Halood makod Polyphagotarsonemus latus Acarina Major Sucks sap from leaves
Indigo caterpillar Katri poka Spodoptera exigua Lepidoptera Minor Feeds on leaves
Black hairy caterpillar Kalo bichha poka Pericallia ricini Lepidoptera Minor Feeds on leaves
Cut worm Katui poka Spodoptera litura Lepidoptera Minor Feeds on leaves
Pod borer Xutir majra poka Earias cuprioviridis Lepidoptera Minor Bores in developing pods
Stick insect Chhari poka Scopula emmisaria Lepidoptera Minor Feeds on leaves
Red mite Lal makor Tetranychus bioculatus Acarina Minor Sucks sap from leaves
Mealy bug Pater chhatra poka Ferisia pseudococcus Homoptera Minor Sucks sap from leaves
Jute aphid Pater jab poka Apis gossypii Homoptera Minor Sucks sap from leaves
Leaf miner Pat patar miner Trachys pacifica Coleoptera Minor Grub mines on leaves
Termite Weepoka Microtermes obesi, Odontotermes obesus Isoptera Minor Affect fibres in godowns
Stem girdler --- Nupsera bicolor Coleoptera Minor Damages stem
Leaf beetle Patar poka Luperomorpha vittata Coleoptera Minor Feeds on young leaves
Hooded hopper Sosok poka Otinotus elongatus Homoptera Minor Sucks sap from stem

Pest of jute The jute crop at all of its growing stages is infested by over two dozens insect and mite pests. As a result, both the quality and quantity of the crop is affected. It is estimated that under certain conditions the loss of jute production due to pest damage alone may be as high as 12 percent or more. However, the intensity of damage varies in different areas and in different years. The incidence of pest infestation largely depends upon weather conditions, variety of jute, method of cultivation, and the presence of predatory and parasitic organisms. Of the commonly encountered pests, a few are considered as major, while the others are treated as minor. If environmental conditions become favourable, a minor pest may attain the rank of a major pest.

Of all the pests, the jute hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua, is most destructive. The larval stages, particularly the third and fourth stages feed voraciously on the jute leaves and may skeletonize the jute plant. The jute semilooper, Anomis sabulifera is another serious pest. [SM Humayun Kabir]

See alsobangladesh jute research institute; fibre crop; jute industry; jutton.

Jute cutting from wetland
Handicraft items from jute fibre

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